Excerpt:Â The notion that reason is capable of supplanting religion, or even God, is not a recent conceit. For more than 200 years, advocates of the Enlightenment have insisted that reason not only can serve as a genuine basis for society and morality, but provides a superior one. The New Atheism which has popped up so often in the media of late is merely the latest attempt to revive this hoary old idea, which has survived despite the centuries of copious evidence to the contrary. And for centuries, advocates of reason have assumed that science is a fundamental ally of Enlightenment, based primarily on the belief that science and religion are inherently at odds. But this is manifestly untrue, as indicated by the fact that the chief example of this massive conflict is not only more than 500 years old, but does not demonstrate what it is commonly supposed to show. Whatever one might conclude about Pope Urban VIII's preference for a pagan astrologer's astronomical system instead of the one developed 80 years before by a Christian cleric, it is simply not reasonable to believe that this single incident is in any way indicative of an inevitable conflict.